Why GATE?

A student has to put in a lot of hard work in his/her studies and applications, as it is not a mere task for one to clear the GATE Exam. Nevertheless, at manifold, we ensure that it is not an uphill task for one to clear this exam. We train our students effectively which gradually adapts them to solve the questions easily. Students clearing this examination are considered privileged and a class apart from the rest.

The core reason to take GATE Exam

- To secure admissions for Masters degree programs in prestigious institutes in the country like IISc. and IIT’s.
- To secure admissions for Masters degree programs outside INDIA like NUS, NTU.
- To procure jobs in PSU’s like IOCL, HPCL,GAIL,NHAI etc.
- Guaranteed scholarships of 12400/- per month for Masters degree programs.
- A high salary in contention with the rest.
- Qualify for CSIR fellowships and research in B.A.R.C, D.R.D.O. etc.

The eligibility criteria for GATE exam is as follows:

- Bachelor’s degree holders in Engineering/ Architecture (4 yrs after 10+2) and final year students of the course.
- Master’s degree holders in Science/Maths/Statistics/Computer applications and final year students of the course.
- Students in the second or upper session of the Four-year assimilated Master’s degree course (Post-B.Sc.) in Engineering/Technology
- Students in the fourth or upper session of Five-year Integrated Master’s degree course or Twin Degree course in Engineering/Technology.

GATE Exam Pattern

- No.of questions: 65
- Duration : 3 hours
- Maximum Marks: 100
- Separate cut off marks for each branch.
- Exam mode: Online Computer Based Test (CBT) mode.
- Result: declared one month after the exam.
- GATE score validity: 3 years

Preparing for GATE

According to Manifold, to be successful in GATE Exam, one has to have these two qualities :

- Precision
- Time Utilization

- Maintain a striking balance between Theoretical & Numerical questions.
- Have thorough knowledge of the core papers that have more weight-age.
- Work out previous years question papers and understand the method to solve these questions efficiently.

**Group Study**is a good method to speed up your thoughts on technical aspects. Doing this, you might find new skills and techniques to realize the concept involved in a better way.**Short Cut Methods:**Old-fashioned means to resolve mathematical issues is a time captivating procedure, try to adapt to short cut methods to preserve time.**Pocket Notes:**Develop a short note book summarizing key ideas and formulas after learning every subject/chapter. This helps to revise all topics effectively in a short span of time.

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

**Engineering Mathematics**

**Discrete Mathematics**: Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring.

**Combinatorics**: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.

**Linear Algebra**: Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigen vectors, LU decomposition.

**Calculus**: Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.

**Probability**: Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.

COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

**Computer Science and Information Technology****Digital Logic**:Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).**Computer Organization and Architecture:**Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data‐path and control unit. Instruction pipelining. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).**Programming and Data Structures**Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search

trees, binary heaps, graphs.**Algorithms:**Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer. Graph search, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.-
**Theory of Computation:**Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata. Regular and contex-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.

**Compiler Design:**Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation. **Operating System:**Processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.**Databases:**ER‐model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.**Computer Networks:**Concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet). Flow and error control techniques, switching. IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP and sockets, congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP). Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.

GATE Electronics & Communication Syllabus

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

** Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra**: Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigen values and eigen vectors, rank, solution of linear equations – existence and uniqueness.**Calculus**: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.**Differential Equations**: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, methods of solution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential

equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.**Vector Analysis:**Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss’s, Green’s and Stoke’s theorems.**Complex Analysis:**Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula; Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem.**Numerical Methods:**Solution of nonlinear equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations, convergence criteria.

Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; combinatorial probability, probability distribution functions – binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal; Joint and conditional probability; Correlation and regression analysis.

CORE PAPERS

**Networks, Signals and Systems:**Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s, maximum power transfer; Wye‐Delta transformation; Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits;

Linear 2‐port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions; State equations for networks.

**Continuous-time signals:**Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem and applications; Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform, interpolation of discrete-time signals; LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques.**Electronic Devices:**Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and continuity equations; P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process.**Analog Circuits:**Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response;**BJT and MOSFET:**amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple op-amp circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and opamp configurations; Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.**Digital Circuits:**Number systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs;**Sequential circuits**: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines;Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM; 8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

**Control Systems:**Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.**Communications:**Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem;**Digital communication**s: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its

mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.**Electromagnetics:**Electrostatics; Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart;

**Waveguides**: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations;

**Antennas**: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibers.

GATE Electrical Engineering Syllabus

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

**Linear Algebra:**Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.**Calculus :**Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.**Differential equations :**First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.**Complex variables :**Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.**Probability and Statistics :**Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.**Numerical Methods :**Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.**Transform Theory :**Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

CORE PAPERS

**Electric Circuits:**Network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, Transient response of dc and ac networks, Sinusoidal steady‐state analysis, Resonance, Passive filters, Ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Superposition theorem, Maximum power transfer theorem, Two‐port networks, Three phase circuits, Power and power factor in ac circuits.**Electromagnetic Fields:**Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits,Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.**Signals and Systems:**Representation of continuous and discrete‐time signals, Shifting and scaling operations,

Linear Time Invariant and Causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals, Sampling theorem, Applications of Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform and z-Transform.

**Electrical Machines:**Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase transformers: connections, parallel operation; Auto‐transformer, Electromechanical energy conversion principles,**DC machines**: separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics, starting and speed control of dc motors; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Operating principle of single phase induction motors;**Synchronous machines**: cylindrical and salient pole machines, performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motor, characteristics; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric

machines.**Power Systems:**Power generation concepts, ac and dc transmission concepts, Models and performance of transmission lines and cables, Series and shunt compensation, Electric field distribution and insulators, Distribution systems, Per‐unit quantities, Bus admittance matrix, GaussSeidel and Newton-Raphson load flow methods, Voltage and Frequency control, Power factor correction, Symmetrical components, Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis, Principles of over‐current, differential and distance protection; Circuit breakers, System stability concepts, Equal area criterion.**Control Systems:**Mathematical modeling and representation of systems, Feedback principle, transfer function, Block diagrams and Signal flow graphs, Transient and Steady‐state analysis of linear time invariant systems, Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist criteria, Bode plots, Root loci, Stability analysis, Lag, Lead and Lead‐Lag compensators; P, PI and PID controllers; State space model, State transition matrix.**Electrical and Electronic Measurements:**Bridges and Potentiometers, Measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power

factor; Instrument transformers, Digital voltmeters and multimeters, Phase, Time and Frequency measurement; Oscilloscopes, Error analysis.**Analog and Digital Electronics:**Characteristics of diodes, BJT, MOSFET; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifiers;

Amplifiers: Biasing, Equivalent circuit and Frequency response; Oscillators and Feedback amplifiers; Operational amplifiers: Characteristics and applications; Simple active filters, VCOs and Timers, Combinational and Sequential logic circuits, Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Schmitt trigger, Sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, 8085Microprocessor: Architecture, Programming and Interfacing.**Power Electronics:**Characteristics of semiconductor power devices: Diode, Thyristor, Triac, GTO, MOSFET,

IGBT; DC to DC conversion: Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters; Single and three phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers, Line commutated thyristor based converters, Bidirectional ac to dc voltage source converters, Issues of line current harmonics, Power factor, Distortion factor of ac to dc converters, Single phase and three phase inverters, Sinusoidal pulse width modulation.

GATE Mechanical Engineering Syllabus

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

- Engineering Mathematics
**Linear Algebra**: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.**Calculus**: Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, indeterminate forms; evaluation of definite and improper integrals; double and triple integrals; partial derivatives, total derivative, Taylor series (in one and two variables), maxima and minima, Fourier series; gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, applications of Gauss, Stokes and Green’s theorems.**Differential equations:**First order equations (linear and nonlinear); higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equation; initial and boundary value problems; Laplace transforms; solutions of heat, wave and

Laplace’s equations.**Complex variables**: Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series.**Probability and Statistics****:**Definitions of probability, sampling theorems, conditional probability; mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions.**Numerical Methods:**Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

CORE PAPERS

**Applied Mechanics and Design**

**Engineering Mechanics:**Free-body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations,

collisions.

**Mechanics of Materials**: Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson’s ratio; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of

circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with universal testing machine; testing of hardness and impact strength.

**Theory of Machines:**Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope.

**Vibrations:**Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts.**Machine Design:**Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints; shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings,

brakes and clutches, springs.**Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences**

**Fluid Mechanics:**Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy, forces on submerged bodies, stability of floating bodies; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; dimensional analysis; viscous flow of incompressible fluids, boundary layer, elementary turbulent flow, flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends and fittings.

**Heat-Transfer**: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept and electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler’s charts; thermal boundary layer, dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer, Stefan- Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors, radiation network analysis.

**Thermodynamics:**Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substances, behaviour of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and irreversibility; thermodynamic relations.

**Applications:**Power Engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: Air-standard Otto, Diesel and dual cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration

and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines.

**Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering**

**Engineering Materials:**Structure and properties of engineering materials, phase diagrams, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.

**Casting, Forming and Joining Processes:**Different types of castings, design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design. Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy. Principles of welding, brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding.

**Machining and Machine Tool Operations**: Mechanics of machining; basic machine tools; single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional machining processes;

principles of work holding, design of jigs and fixtures.

**Metrology and Inspection:**Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge design; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.

**Computer Integrated Manufacturing**: Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools.**Production Planning and Control:**Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning.

**Inventory Control:**Deterministic models; safety stock inventory control systems.

**Operations Research:**Linear programming, simplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.

GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

**Engineering Mathematics****Linear Algebra:**Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.**Calculus:**Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.**Differential equations:**First order equation (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial

differential equations: variable separable method.**Analysis of complex variables:**Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.**Probability and Statistics:**Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions.**Numerical Methods:**Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.

CORE PAPERS

**Electrical Circuits:**Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-i relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation. Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems. Peak-, average- and rms values of ac quantities; apparent-, active- and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements. One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open-, and short circuit parameters.**Signals and Systems:**Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR

filters.

**Control Systems:**Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag compensators, state-space representation of systems; time-delay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, P-I, P-I-D, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers.**Analog Electronics:**Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of operational amplifiers; applications of opamps: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters and other circuits. Oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop.**Digital Electronics:**Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers, timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer, analog-todigital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigma-delta) and digital-toanalog converters (weighted R, R-2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, 8-bit microprocessor and microcontroller: applications, memory and

input-output interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems.**Measurements:**

SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty – accuracy and precision index, propagation of errors. PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments; dc potentiometer; bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter. Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true rms meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.**Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation:**Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (differential pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement.**Communication and Optical Instrumentation:**Amplitude- and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon’s sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude-, phase-, frequency-, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photo-diode, light dependent resistor and their characteristics; interferometer:

applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing.

GATE Civil Engineering Syllabus

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

**Engineering Mathematics****Linear Algebra****:**Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.**Calculus**: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial

derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.**Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE)****:**First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; Laplace transform and its application in solving linear ODEs; initial and boundary value problems.**Partial Differential Equation (PDE)**: Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of onedimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.**Probability and Statistics****:**Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics – Mean,

median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.**Numerical Methods****:**Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.

CORE PAPERS

**Structural Engineering****Engineering Mechanics:**System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of point mass and rigid body; Centre of mass; Euler’s equations of motion; Impulse-momentum; Energy methods; Principles of virtual work.**Solid Mechanics:**Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and

direct bending stresses.

**Structural Analysis:**Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.

**Construction Materials and Management:**Construction Materials: Structural steel – composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete – constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen.**Construction Management:**Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate

analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM.

**Concrete Structures:**Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete; Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.

**Steel Structures:**Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of

beams and frames.**Geotechnical Engineering**

**Soil Mechanics:**Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one dimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils – two-dimensional

flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; Onedimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.

**Foundation Engineering:**Sub-surface investigations – scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories, pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure;

Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction.**Water Resources Engineering**

**Fluid Mechanics**: Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of

boundary layer and its growth.

**Hydraulics:**Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow

**Hydrology:**Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s law.

**Irrigation:**Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration; Crop water requirements; Design of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.**Environmental Engineering**

**Water and Waste Water:**Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage

treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment.

Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.

**Air Pollution:**Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.

**Municipal Solid Wastes:**Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).

**Noise Pollution:**Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.**Transportation Engineering**

**Transportation Infrastructure****:**Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments; Geometric design of railway track; Airport runway length, taxiway and exit

taxiway design.

**Highway Pavements**: Highway materials – desirable properties and quality control tests; Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011;

Distresses in concrete pavements.

**Traffic Engineering****:**Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time – delay and O-D study, PCU, peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Control devices, signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections and channelization; Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban roads.

**Geomatics Engineering:**Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.

Photogrammetry – scale, flying height; Remote sensing – basics, platform and sensors, visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and Geographical Positioning system (GPS).